Anecdota Cartographica III.
Maps of the Neva river and adjacent areas in swedish archives.
By Leo Bagrow and Harald Kцhlin.
Early maps, as original historical sources, have often the same value as any other documentary evidence. Historians use maps directly or after they have been studied by scholars who specialize in historical geography.
The maps which I discuss below are such raw, unworked material. Various auxiliary texts and other sources are lacking and this precludes a thorough study of these maps.
Russian scholars have shown great interest in maps relating to Russia now preserved in Sweden. Formerly Russia had a common frontier with Sweden on the coasts of the Arctic Ocean and in Finland and Ingria. Wars between Moscow and Sweden were frequent. They were fierce in the 17th century and in the early 18th century, when the Russians decided to gain a firm foothold on the coast of the Gulf of Finland. The military operations and the Swedish administration called for maps of the border. Such maps were also made in Moscow. The "Great Map”, the official map of the Moscow State reached as far as the Arctic Ocean, Lake Ladoga and the Neva river, to judge from the Book of the Great Map. (#1) Moscow also made maps of the frontier areas, e.g. "a map of Livonian towns and old lists of roads from German towns to Riga” (according to a catalogue dating from 1575-84). Russian draughtsmen were present in 1595-6 at the delineation of the Swedish-Russian frontier and made a map in the Russian language. Russian rollmaps were long kept in the Stockholm State Archives, (#2) but now they cannot be found there. One of the Russian maps of the middle of the 17th century, which mentions "a map of Russian and Swedish towns as far as the Varangian Sea (i.e. the Baltic Sea)” was recently found and published. (#3) The lack of Russian maps of areas adjacent to former Swedish possessions naturally enhances the interest in surviving Swedish maps of the time.
By the Nystadt peace treaty of 1721, which transferred to Russia part of the Swedish territories in Finland and the whole of Ingria, Sweden pledged herself to hand over to Russia all documents and archives referring to the administration of the ceded areas. Sweden was slow in turning over this material, and did so in instalments. This went on during almost the whole of the 18th century. Some of the most secret documents remained in Sweden, others were handed over to Russia but were lost there, being scattered among different archives in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Reval and Viborg.
The city which Peter the Great founded at the mouth of the Neva river became the capital of the Russian State. It is only natural that Russian scientists should have been interested in everything relating to the history of this area. One of these, Pastor A. I. Hipping, devoted practically his entire lifetime to the study of the history of (in particular) the Carelian Isthmus and to the collection of archive materials referring to the Neva and Nyen, the town which the Swedes had built on the Neva's lower course. He considered early Swedish maps an essential source. He planned to edit this material and commenced the publication not only of material found in the archives and different earlier chronicles, but also of copies of early maps. His work was sponsored by the well-known St. Petersburg Academician A. Kunik. However, Hipping died in 1860 and could not complete his work, while Kunik was unable to carry out the printing of the material prepared. Whatever had been printed, was stored in the repository of the Academy and there completely forgotten. Almost 50 years passed before the material was discovered by an accident; the member of the Academy A. S. Lappo-Danilevsky decided to publish at least what had been printed, adding a few comments of his own. The Academy of Sciences, considering that the work was incomplete and somewhat outdated, distributed the publication only to learned institutions and scientists, but did not make it available to the public at large. (#4) An atlas, a part of his work, contained 12 maps. Eleven had been collected by Hipping, while the twelfth was added by Kunik. The latter - a map of the area where St. Petersburg was later established - was published in a Russian translation by R. E. Schwartz in 1872. (#5) The maps and plans were not real facsimiles - they were tracings, and the spelling of some names was somewhat different from that on the originals.
As I was gathering material for a cartographic exhibition in Stockholm, I came across many maps of the Neva river and adjacent regions, which Hipping had not known. Some of these maps were later appended to works of Swedish scientists (#6); even of these, however, most were tracings and some even abridged. I therefore decided to invite attention to these maps and to reproduce them photographically. However, even I have not exhausted the material which is to be found in the Swedish archives and which presents interest for Russia and primarily for the Baltic area. Not all of the material referring to the Neva and adjacent areas even has now been completely utilized. I have not reproduced everything dealing exclusively with Nyen and the Nyenskans, nor have I used a number of maps representing neighbouring countries, because they do not show the Neva. I made an exception only for three maps: the Uusikirka pogost (parish), the Duderhof pogost and the Yamsko-Koporie lдn (province). Of two maps, I have included only the eastern parts, and did not reproduce parts of present-day Estonia and Latvia; in addition I have reproduced to plans, St Petersburg, 1705, and the environs of Nyenskans. The rest of the maps show the whole of the Neva or its delta.
As stated above I have not described these maps. I leave this to specialists who have the necessary knowledge and subsidiary materials. Mr. H. Kцhlin kindly consented to catalogue the maps which I had selected. As keeper of the Map Department of the Military Archives he is better qualified to carry out this work than anybody else. I have prefixed to this atlas a brief survey of the development of the cartography of the Gulf of Finland during the period preceding that in which the special Swedish maps were made. This is a field with which I am familiar and where I have the necessary equipment. My intention is to facilitate future research on these maps, relieving the researcher from the necessity of preparatory work and allowing him to devote himself entirely to the study of the maps presented herewith.
We find little reference to the Neva in various accounts by medieval travellers. On the contemporary maps too the Neva was represented comparatively late: the river was considered as a kind of strait between the sea and Lake Ladoga. The earliest knowledge about the Neva was brought by Scandinavians whose route went along the Neva, Lake Ladoga, the river Volkhow, Lake Ilmen and then along the arms and tributaries of the Volga, or the Dnieper. However, this knowledge has not come down to us. Sagas known to us and later communications pass over the Neva in silence and at best mention the lake Nevo (as Lake Ladoga was then called) and pass on direct to the river Volkhov. The Vikings built on the Volkhov, 12 km from its mouth, a fortress, Alldeigaborg - the Russian Ladoga (not the modern, but ancient one, where there are still ruins of "Rurik's House”). The absence of other fortress between the Ladoga and the mouth of the Neva seems to indicate that the Ladoga was the end of the sea route and the starting point of the river route. The Russian chronicler Nestor says: "Ilmar (Ilmen) lake is a large lake. From the same lake flows the Volkhov and it falls into the great lake Nevo whose mouth is to the Varangian Sea”. As we see, the Neva is not mentioned as such, but only as a outflow of the Ladoga river into the Baltic Sea. However, in the 12th and 13th centuries, the delta of the Neva had become so considerable that the Swedes deemed it necessary to build there in 1300 the fortress of Landskrona which was destroyed by the Russians in the following year. The river Neva was mentioned in Russian history earlier. In 1228, when Yems came in boats to the Ladoga to wage war, the people of Novgorod cut off their retreat by placing their boats on the Neva. In 1240, Duke Alexander routed the Swedes on the Neva near the mouth of the Izhora river. This earned him the name of Alexander Nevsky. Two years later he won fame in another war by defeating the Germans on the ice of Lake Pskov. This victory entered not only Russian but also world history as the Ice Massacre - Prelium glaciale, as it is called by Olaus Magnus in 1539 in an image on his map. (#7)
Claudius Ptolemy, the well-known scholar of Alexandria, (in the 2nd century) inaugurated European cartography. Whenever the maps appended to his cartographical work were made (2nd to 12th century), the Neva could not be represented on them since the extreme north of Europe was then not yet known. Knowledge of the Baltic Sea ended east of the mouth of the Wisla.
The history of medieval cartography can be divided according to periods and character, into the following groups:
EARLY MIDDLE AGES - monastic maps, maps accompanying theological works or illustrating classical compositions; they are very schematic and, whenever they go beyond the limits of a scheme and give details, these details are full of incorrect and mostly imaginary data. MOSLEM CARTOGRAPHY, chiefly Arabian may in turn be subdivided into (1) the so-called Islam cartography prominently represented by Istahri, which does not go as far north as the eastern Baltic and (2) the works of the well-known cartographer Idrisi who lived in the 12th century at the court of the Norman king Roger of Sicily. He had more information about the north of Europe. (#8) The Arabs traded briskly with the North. Arabian coins were circulated among the Samoyeds. Tablets with Kufic inscriptions have been found with the Ostiaks, while scales have been found in Laponia. One single find on the shores of Lake Ladoga yielded more then 100 kg. Of Kufic coins. Hence the Arabs, especially Idrisi, could have had satisfactory information, since it would seem that a Norman court might have had access to information gathered by Norman travellers through Russia and because, by Roger's orders, scouts were sent to all countries to collect on the spot information of various kinds needed by Idrisi. However, Idrisi gives very few definite data on northern Europe. As regards specifically the area under consideration, Idrisi has only one river which might interest us: nar narlagu, is it is transcribed by K. Miller,(#9) i.e. the river Narva or nar brlgv in Tuulio's transcription,(#10) meaning, according to him, the Volkhov river. It debouches into a sea, rising from a minor lake. If Tuulio's interpretation is given larger credit, Lake Ladoga is considered a sea even in this case.
MARINE CHARTS are known only from the very end of the 13th century. They have come down to us only in two types: Italian and Catalan. The former do not reach so far North as to interest us and, moreover, they mainly give only the coast lines. The Catalan charts already include the Baltic Sea and furnish the hydrography of the Continent.(#11) The general picture on all Catalan charts is identical: the Baltic Sea extends from west to east; in its eastern parts there is a large island Oxillia (Oesel), and further east a river Nu (Neva) empties into the sea, rising from a large lake from which rise also the Volga and the Don (Rha-Tanais). On the middle course of Nu lies Nogerado or Nogardia. These maps date from a 50-year period - approximately 1325-75. Even here we see that the Ladoga See is lacking, while the Volkhov is united with the Neva.
The LATE MIDDLE AGES overlap in time with the early Middle Ages, and the Moslem maps and sea charts were nourished, so to speak, on the maps of these earlier periods. The well-known author of see charts, Petrus Vesconte (first quarter of the 14th century) made, inter alia, a world map for a MS. of Marino Sanudo. He does not, however, know anything about the hydrography of the region which interests us. The following century failed to add anything: maps of the Catalan type (world maps now preserved at Genoa and Modena) make no addition to what was represented on the aforementioned sea charts, while maps of other types either give no place-names, as Leardo's map (1425), or else show a confused picture; Fra Mauro's map (1457),(#12) considered the highest achievement of medieval cartography, thus represents a river which could be taken for the Neva. This river flows from a lake, as on the Catalan maps, and debouches into the Baltic Sea, past Viborg and Еbo. There is a city, principio de rossia, on the lake, and west of it we see mountains past which the river flows, roci chovia over nagardo.
A new era, that of the RENAISSANCE, followed. It meant a revival of interest in Ptolemy, whose works were brought to Italy by Byzantine refugees. However, as stated above, Ptolemy's Geographia did not include the coasts of the Baltic Sea east of the river Wisla. In general, Western Europe, where a considerable number of copies of Ptolemy's Geographia were circualted, found that the information given in it was inadequate. Uncritical initial enthusiasm was followed by a demand for the inclusion of up-to-date knowledge. Cardinal Guillaume Filliastre, at the time Canon in Reims, asked that the most recent maps of Scandinavia be included in the copy of the Geographia which he has ordered. A map of Scandinavia was brought to Rome by the Danish geographer Claudius Clavus or Cl. Swartho; Filliastre evidently had this map. While all of Scandinavia was shown on this map, the Baltic Sea had recieved inadequate treatment; the Gulf of Botnia was not represented and the Baltic Sea ended with the Gulf of Finland. The Baltic east coast had no place-names on themap, but an enclosed text presented a catalogue of localities with their latitudes and longitudes. Three of these catalogues have come down to us: one, together with the map, is at Nantes, while two others, without maps are in the National Library of Vienna. (#13) This text, especially in the Vienna copy, shows the geographical coordinates of the mouths of the rivers debouching into the Gulfs of Finland and Riga. These rivers have no names, but are designated by numbers: river no.1, river no. 2, etc. (in Danish: Fшrste aa, Annen aa, Threde aa, Fierdhe aa). The Nantes copy does not contain these data. There are also discrepancies among the individual copies as regards the geographical coordinates. In general, the Vienna copy moves all latitudes almost 2° north, and the longitudes1.5°-2° west. The Nantes copy shows Viborg, a place which interests us. The Vienna copy does not mention Viborg, but indicates the existence in the Gulf of Finland seven small islands.(#14) Clavus had not visited all the places which he describes. One of his sources was the Itinerarium de Brugia.(#15) On the whole, Clavus' text is mostly a periplus as regards the Baltic Sea, especially its eastern coast. It does not give place-names, confining itself to indications such as river no. 1, 2, etc., gulf no. 1, 2, etc., cape no.1, 2, etc.
Filliastre's example was followed by Italian cartographers and designers of miniatures, who multiplied by hand the codices of Ptolemy's Geographia. Clavus' map was included among the Tabulae Modernae of the Geographia. However, as 50 years had passed since the production of the map, certain changes had to be made, especially with respect to its eastern part, i.e. as regards the places which Clavus had not visited. The result of these additions was a special type of map, which was included by Nicolaus Germanicus, Henricus Martellus, and others in their manuscript versions, and later, in the printed copies of the Geographia, e.g. in the Ulm edition of 1482.(#16) Not all of these maps resemble one another. I shall not dwell on the principal discrepancy between the maps, i.e. on the position of Iceland and Greenland, which caused their division into A and B maps. We are interested in the eastern part of the Baltic. We see the numbering of the rivers, but, in addition, there are a few cities which were lacking both in the map and in Clavus' text. The map and text in Cod. Magliab. XIII.16 already give place-names. After the Oxilia island comes Riga, immediately followed by fusta fluis, i.e. the Dvina river. Then we see Reuale, followed by a second river - auenus fl., evidently the Narva river, although it is nearer to Reval than to Virona. The latter is the principal city of the province of Wirland, hence Narva (?). In many maps of this type, Ungardia, i.e. Ivangorod or Yamgorod, is located between Reval and the second river, whose mouth opens into a large bay. Then comes the third river. In Cod. Zamoiski (in Warsaw, now probably destroyed by fire) and in a few other maps, we see Nogardia, i.e. Novgorod, on the course of this river. Hence this river must be identified as the Narva. Finally come Offlandena, fierda fl. (fourth river), and Roderim. Behind Roderim begins a gulf. Branching off east, and a deeper one to the north. Scandinavian scholars, Dahlgren, Nordenskiцld, and Bjцrnbo and Petersen interpret Offlandena to mean Upplandene and Roderim to stand for Roslagen (Roden). Hence they regard all the area behind the third river as present-day Sweden. A map of central Europe, contemporary with the maps described above which was made in 1491 on the basis of an early original of Cardinal Nicolaus Cusanus, throws little more light. This map also locates Roderim on the eastern coast of the Gulf of Finland; then comes a fairly wide sound which bends north-west.(#17) This sound is doubtless followed by Sweden, i.e. modern Sweden, while on the map all its north-eastern corner is called Svetia Magna, which adjoins with Russia Alba in the east, Novgardia in the south-west and Livonia in the south. A Narba flu., flowing from the east, falls into the Mare Svetie (here the Gulf of Finland) south of Roderim. North of its mouth lies Flavtdia. This river has two sources: one is the Narva with the city of the same name, flowing from the southern Lacus Pelas (Peipus), while the other rises in a north-eastern lake, which carries the inscription Lacvs Lymidis pars on whose shores lies the city of Novogardia. At the confluence of the two lies a small lake, south of which is Revalien Ecclesia. The author evidently had conflicting information as to whether the streams rising in Peipus and Ilmen form one or two separate rivers. Little was known about these places in Rome at that time. Pope John XXIII, for instance, did not know in 1413 whether Dorpat was located in the Livonian lands of the Teutonic Order or in Sweden, and Wormdit, the Ambassador of the Order, had to draw on the spot a rough sketch showing the situation of Dorpet. Needless to say, the knowledge of more distant regions was even poorer. As for the question of Flantena or Offlantena and also that of Roderin or Roderim, I consider it solved in the sense that both names are adapted to places on the shores of the Carelian peninsula, south of Viborg: the first is apparently Finland, and the second Rodhell, which is found in later maps and is situated on the promontory behind which Viborg Bay begins. A comparison of the longitude of Rodhell, as shown in the map of the Cod. Magliab, which is close to the Vienna copy of Clavus, with that of Viborg in the Nantes copy (none of the texts gives both points), locates Viborg even west of Roderim. A fourth river, south of Viborg, remains. It is the river Polna as it was already called in maps of the 16th century. It will be discussed later.
As regards the general character of the coast-line, it may be said that from Riga the coast goes north, then turns east near Reval and from Narva goes northwest to the third river (Neva); thence it turns west and reaches the mouth of the fourth river and Roderim. After Roderim the coast has no localities and evidently runs straight west, to break off somewhere the Еland Archipelago (?) forming Sinorum primus sinus, i.e. "the first bay of the bays”. Then the coast runs south again. The rivers are numbered from north to south.(#18) Only in the map of the codex of the Geographia, now in the Royal Library at Brussels,(#19) which belongs to the same period, i.e. 1480-85 is Roderin followed by a name, that of Litania (possibly Livonia), which also would indicate that this coast is not Sweden. Later sea-charts, i.e. Portuguese maps of the beginning and middle of the 16th century, likewise do not show the Gulf of Bothnia, and thus stress that Viborg and Roderin are in Finland.(#20)
Printed maps now appear, and the first printed editions of Ptolemy's Geographica included Cl. Clavus' maps of Scandinavia, without any improvement, in the versions of Nicolaus Germanus and his contemporaries. Somewhat later another map, representing our area and based on the material supplied by Nicolaus Cusanus, was added. A few words have been said about it above. Waldseemьller's world map (1507)(#21) does not present any new data on the Gulf of Finland. It too mentions no rivers which interest us. Novgorod lies deep inside the country. A new, entirely revised edition of this map appeared in 1516. The coast of the Gulf of Finland almost without any alterations, was drawn, on the whole according to Nicolaus Cusanus. The northernmost river of this coast, possible the Narva (the print is almost illegible) is composed of two sources - the Narba and the Wolga (i.e. the Volkhov). In the fork of these rivers we have Janigvardi, and on the Volkhov is Flantena. Hence Waldseemьller had no new materials in which the map of Russia proper was so rich.
In the 1530's a German scholar, Jakob Ziegler, often came to Italy. In Rome he met representatives of the Scandinavian church who lived there or came for short visits. By question them he obtained different data on Scandinavia and made a special map of Scandinavia, which he appended to his work on the Holy Land. His work appeared in print in 1532.(#22) This was the first map to show separately the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, both running parallel to the North. The printed and the original MS. map, at the highest point of the Gulf of Finland, strikes our eye. On its southern coast, deep in the mainland, running north is the Lacus albus, surrounded by Russian lands. On its northern coast is Viborg, separated from the Russian lands by teh Gulf of Finland, which bends exactly at this place. The Gulf of Finland, as shown here, must therefore be considered as part of the Gulf which Russian literary documents was called the Kotlino Lake; it commenced at the mouth of the Narva and went on to the mouth of the Neva and Viborg. This rough map was to illustrate the rich catalogue of geographical points with coordinates, which Ziegler provided in his book. However, if we were to draw a map on the basis of the geographical coordinates given, we would obtain an entirely different picture of Finland, and then we could assume that the horn turning north behind Viborg is actually the Viborg Bay and the system of the Vuoksa river. We note as especially interesting the error made by Ziegler, or by his informant, in that points which are actually on the Carelian Isthmus between Viborg and the Neva, such as Jochas, Egrepe, Nikyrkia, Kiwaneb (Kokkas, Ayrдpдд, Uusikirka, Kivanappa), were transferred by the author to the opposite side. The piece of land with these points must be moved by 180°: these points lie not northwest, but southeast of Viborg. South of this piece of land everything is unknown to Ziegler.
A few years later, in 1539, was published Olaus Magnus' famous map. As in Ziegler, the Gulf of Finland turns north, but Viborg is at the highest point of the Gulf.(#23) A large river flows south parallel to the coast. One of the sources rises in a lake. Kexholm is at the outlet. At the southern end of the river we have Novgorod. In the middle course of the river we have the name Flv. Nygen, which must be identified as the stream which links this river with the Gulf of Finland. Here, south of the Neva and on the ice, on the Finnish side, is represented the Ice Massacre. About midway between Viborg and the Neva, a river falls into the sea. At its mouth is Lappavesi, in the middle Egrepe, on one of the sources Iegaborg. This is hardly Lappavesi, it is probably Vilmanstrand.(#24) Egrepe = Дyrдpдд, Iegeborg is mentioned in the Itinerarium de Brugis as the Jueghelberh mountain in Kareli. South of Lappavesi are Kivaneb and Ecclia Nova, i.e. Kivanappa and Uusikirka (= New Church).
By this time Russian data had reached Europe. Herberstein visited Moscow in 1517 and 1526 and brought back some Russian material. A Russian mission came to Rome in 1525. One of its members, Dimitry Gerasimov, told Paolo Giovio a great deal. The latter thereupon published a description of Russia and a map, which has come down to us in the form of a copy made by Battista Agnese. Finally Ivan Lyatsky, the former governor of Pskov, who had fled from Moscow, lived in Lithuania from 1534 and gave materials for maps to A. Wied, S. Mьnster and evidently, at an earlier date, to Herberstein also. Gerasimov's map(#25) is not rich in information. It gives Neva-Neue fl., flowing from a large lake, on the shores of which is Novogrodia Maxima. This river flows through a small unnamed lake. North of the mouth of the Neva lies Viborg, south of it Narva.
Maps based on material furnished by Lyatsky(#26) are very similar in form. Herberstein has perhaps more place-names, which he had obtained in Moscow, or later from Lyatsky, when the latter lived in Lithuania.
|S.Mьnster 1544.||Herberstein 1546.||A.Wied 1555.||now.
|f. Polna||f. Polna||f. Polna||
|Ladoga lacus||Ladoga||Lake Ladoga
|Nowigrod Wilki||Nowogardia magna||Wilki Nouigrod||Veliki Novgorod
|Plusa fl.||Plusa river
|fl. Velica Recka||Velikaya river
The identification of these names, with the exception of the Polna river does not give rise to any dispute or misunderstanding. It may be mentioned that Kexholm was called the Korelski Township in the Russian chronicles. However, it is possible that in some foreign maps this referred to a hamlet situated near Uusikirka, the present-day Krasnoyo Selo, or Kyyrцlla (Kyrцlд in Finnish). On the maps of the 16th century this corresponds to Corela south of Ecclesia Nova. The Novgorod people called Narva Rugodiv when they took it in 1294. As regards Polna, we have an error here made by Lyatsky. He certainly knew the Pskov legend (he was Governor in Pskov), or the Novgorod statement from the Novgorod chronicles that "in the summer of 6826 (= 1318) the Novgorod people went to war across the sea to the Polna river and waged a great war and took Lyder's city of the Sumj Prince and Piskupl”. Lyder's city is usually understood to mean Еbo, i.e. the Еbo Castle, the residence of the then Governor of Finland (= the Sumj Principality), Lyder von Kyren, while Piskupl means the Kuusto Castle where the Еbo Bishop resided. This would mean that the river Polna is the river Aura. This interpretation obviously was fully in line with contemporary notions. The Reval rеdskansliet (municipal chancellery) accordingly translated it in a letter from Novgorod as the city of Aebo.(#27) Lyatsky interpreted the place of the campaign erroneously. This is understandable, since even later the interpretation of the routes of campaigns waged in that period has caused disputes.(#28) Lyatsky evidently thought that the Novgorod people made war in 1318 on Viborg, and he identified the Polna river with the Vuoksa, with its system of lakes and water-courses, or with the Kosen joki river which falls into the sea south of Viborg by the Kakkis-S. Johannis settlement. Biskopsцn, incidentally, is situated there. Herberstein states that the Polna river separated the lands of the Moscow ruler from the Chainska semlia, referred to in the chronicles as the Gamskaya zemlia - Emskaya zemlia, i.e. Finland. The frontier was considered to be officially established under the Orekhov agreement of 1323. Under this treaty Novgorod ceded to Sweden 3 communes: Sevilakshya (Savolax), Yaski (Jaeskis) and Ogreba (Aegrepae).(#29) The frontier ran along the Sestra river, across the marshes to the Saya (= Zay-Zaj) river, the Solnechny Kamen' (= Solsten-Pдivдkivi), the Chermnaya Shchel' (= Rodhahael-Rшdhahell), the Lembo lake (Lamb trдsk) and so on. Hence the river Polna must be identified with the Sestra river, while the frontier ran on to the Vuoksa river east of the Дyrдpдд lake. On the other hand, if the frontier passed through Rodhahael, the mouth of the Polna river should be moved north somewhere to the south of Viborg, since Rodhahael-Chermnaya shchel is at the same time also the name of a locality at the entrance to the Viborg bay - Roderin on the old maps. All this completely exonerates Herberstein or Lyatsky, as the case may be, from bringing confusion into the maps of their time.
G. Mercator based the Gulf of Finland section of his large map of Europe on Herberstein's data, somewhat supplemented and corrected. The Polna city at the mouth of the river of the same name has been renamed Lapanesi; further south there is Ecclesia Noua (Uusikirka) and the Corela river; the city of Corela is at the mouth of the river - actually the Sestra river. Corela is at the aforementioned Kyrцlд village. Neva flu c. Oreshek at the mouth is a short outlet leading from Lake Ladoga - lacus prius Newa, the river Wolochou e Nowgorod magna, Coperoja cast. (the fortress of Coporie), Yama, etc. This type derived from Mercator's map prevailed on the whole down to the end of the 16th century and was taken over with errors, especially in place-names, rather than with additions, by the 17th century.(#30)
The east coast of the Gulf of Finland is well represented on L. I. Waghenaer's sea-chart in the Speculum Nauticum (1586), and the entire Gulf is satisfactorily treated on the sea-chart included in his other atlas, - the Thresoor der Zee-vaert (1598), in which the number of place-names is increased, e.g. fl. Tralesund is added opposite to the islet of Roodehel. However, the general outline has not changed: Wyborg, Egrepe (a district, not a village), Lapavesi, Kukaneb, Niewkerk, Corela. Oreshek on the mouth of the Neva fl., Coperne Castel, etc.
A special joint Russo-Swedish frontier commission composed of Russian and Swedish land surveyors was appointed in 1595, and completed its work in 1596. The plans on which the frontier was traced by the Swedish members of this commission have come down to us.(#31) They influenced the cartography of later periods. Andreus Bureus here first appears as a Swedish geodesist and cartographer. Later, in 1617-21, he was a member of another frontier commission. In 1611 he published a first small map of Sweden, which represented only norhtern Sweden and did not cover the regions of Finland that interest us. In 1626 the same map was published in a larger format on 6 sheets(#32); it comprised the whole of Sweden and Finland and gave new details. It would, however, seem that some of the details have been published earlier thanks to Bureus' initiative. In 1613 Adrian Veno's map appeared in Holland without these new details.(#33) The same is true for Hessel Gerrits' map of the same year, dedicated to Russia. In 1614 H. Gerrits corrected his earlier map and added new data which later were also found on Bureus' map.(#34) The principal addition was the indication that the Neva flowed from a large lake - Ladoga; the outline of the lake is fairly definite and resembles more or less the one given by Bureus in 1626 and finally by Isaac Massa about 1630.(#35) From that time, Swedish data on the region concerned were accepted by all cartographers. Bureus, as a matter of fact, gives in his map very little information of the Swedish part of the Carelian Isthmus. He is more interested in the regions which were ceded to Moscow that in those which Sweden retained. On the Finnish side we see the inscription Europae, which, of course, does not mean to state that this is a part of Europe, but is the Latinized spelling of Ayrдpдд, a district which fell to Sweden.
The maps of the following period do not add anything as regards the region under discussion. Isaac Massa's map Russiae vulgo Moscovia dictae Pars occidentalis includes, in its north-western corner, only the eastern, i.e. the Russian part of Carelia. However, both north of the Neva and, especially, south of it, it also gives a few new names taken from Russian sources. The many-volumed editions of Blaeu's atlas, after 1650, include, in the text of the chapter on Ingria, a small map which chiefly represents the localities south of the Neva. It is almost exclusively based on Russian data, and enumerates the different "pyatiny” (lдn), "pogosty” (parishes), etc. This map is very important for the study of the Swedish MS-maps, which I append to this article.
A few more words on the printed sea-charts of that period. I referred above to the Dutch sea-charts by Waghenaer at the end of the 16th century. The 17th century brings Swedish printed maps of the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland. The first map of the entire Baltic Sea was the map which J. Mеnsson made around 1644. It mentions, on the eastern coast of the Gulf of Finland, the following localities, beginning with Viborg: Wiborg, Rцdhдll, Poika, Bispцn, Biцrckцn, Systerbдck, Prдjanim, Nyskaas, Retsaar, Ingerdiup, Sersgarn, Rettusarii. Nyskaas is Nyenskans, while Ingerdiup must be Ingria. Fifty years later Werner von Rosenfeldt undertook to make new maps. His work was completed by P. Gдdda in 1694-5. The coast from Viborg to Narva is represented on three maps in 1694 (Gдdda), 1695 (Rosenfeldt-Gдdda) and 1695 (Gдdda). The lastmentioned map has the greatest number of place-names. The Rosenfeldt-Gдdda map has in a corner, in a separate cartouche a small map of the entire Lake Ladoga with the Neva.
At Paris in the Marine Archives I have found a map of the delta of the Neva, whose engraving was not completed and which I ascribe to the first years after St. Petersburg's foundation and therefore reproduce here.
(#1) - The original Great Map (Bol'shoi Chertezh) has been lost. Only a supplementary map - the Ukranian Map - and the text to the Great Map - the Book of the Great Map, later published by Novikov in 1773, Count Musin-Pushkin in 1792, Yazykov in 1838, Spasski in 1846 and Serbina in 1950 - have come down to us.
(#2) - See B. E. HILDEBRAND, Om Nцteborgske Freden och Sveriges grдns mot Ryssland frеn еr 1323 till bцrjan af 17:de еrhundret. Kgl. Vitterhets och Ant. Akad. Handlingar. 20D.1852,p.211.
(#3) - In Voprosy geografii, Moskva, no. 20, 1950. 271-302. Also in Imago Mundi IX see H. KЦHLIN, p.95.
(#4) - The publication consists of (i) Neva i Nienshants, sostavil A. I. HIPPING. St. Ptsbrg, 1909, 2 vol,; (2) Sbornik
dokumentov kasayushchikhsya istorii Nevy i Nientshantsa. Prilozhenie k tzudu A. I. Hippinga "Neva i Nienshants”. Petrograd. 1916. (3) Karty i plany Nevy i Nienshantsa, sobrannye A. I. Hippingom i A. A. Kunikom. Atlas of 15 sheets, and (4) a brochure by A. S. LAPPO-DANILEVSKY, Karty i Plany Nevy i Nienshantsa, sobrannye A. I. Hippingom i A. A. Kunikom, St Ptsbrg, 1913.
(#5) - R. E. SCHWARTZ. V pamyat' 200-letnevo yubileya Petro I. Plan mestnosti zanimaemoi nyne St. Peterburgom, snyatyj v 1698 godu do zavoevaniya yevo Petrom Velikim; s pokazaniem sushchestvuyushchikh na nei shvedskikh ukrepleniy. St Pttsbrg. 1872.
(#6) - C. V. BONSDORFF, Nyen och Nyenskans, Acta Soc. Scient. Fennicae. V. 18, Helsingfors, 1891. C. ЦHLANDER, Bidrag till kдnnedom om Ingermanlands historia, Stockholm, 1911. C. v. ROSEN, Bidrag till kдnnedom om de hдndelser, som nдrmast fцregingo svenska stormaktsvдldets fall. Stockholm 1936.
(#7) - For reproduction see V. KORDT, Materialy po istorii russkoi kartografii. Ser. 2 ed. I. Kiev, 1906. Concerning other editions see L. BAGROW, A. Ortelii Catalogus Cartographorum. Erg. Heft Peterm. Mitt. 210, 1930, p.41-45.
(#8) - L. BAGROW, The origin of Ptolemy's Geographia. Geograf. Annaler XXVII, 1945, p.318-387.
(#9) - K. MILLER, Mappae Arabicae, v. 1. Hft. 2 u. 3, Stuttgart, 1926.
(#10) - O. J. TUULIO, Idrisi. La Finlande et les autres pays Baltiques Orientaux, Studia Orientalia. Helsingfors, 3, 1930; O. J. TUULIO, Le nouveau sur Idrisi, l.c. 1936.
(#11) - H. WINTER, Das Katalanische Problem in der дlteren Kartographie. Ibero-Americ. Archiv, 14. 1940, p.89-126.
(#12) - Reproduced in SANTAREM's atlas. Also in Raccolta Ongania, XV. The latest coloured reproduction was published in 1941 in Florence by Fli. Alinari.
(#13) - The text and maps of Cl. Clavus have been very thoroughly studied and published by A. A. BJЦRNBO and C. S. PETERSEN, Der Dдne Claudius Clausson Swart (Claudius Clavus), der дlteste Kartograph des Nordens, der erste Ptolemдus-Epigone der Renaissance, Innsbruck, 1909, with a careful description, comparison and discussion of everything relevant to them.
(#14) - BJЦRNBO and PETERSEN refer these islands to the Livonian coast, as represented on Cod. Magliab. XIII, 16, Bibl. Laurent. Florence.
(#15) - This itinerary "Itineraire Brugeois de la fin du XIVe siиcle", as it is called by J. LELEWEL, was reprinted by him in his Epilogue de la Gйographie du moyen вge, Bruxelles, 281-308. It contains a great deal of interesting material for Russian historians, since it gives some of the routes into the Russian lands.
(#16) - BJЦRNBO's and PETERSEN's cited work gives, on pp. 216-233 a list of names found on the different maps of this type. One map, included in the Cod. Magliab. XIII, 16, resembles very closely the Vienna text, which is appended to the map. It is reproduced here.
(#17) - Reprd. In A. E. NORDENSKIЦLD, Periplus, v. XXXV, see L. BAGROW, l.c. 1930, p.20-33.
(#18) - It is of some interest to redraw the map according to the points given in the Vienna text and in the text appended to the map in Cod. Magliab. Onem ust of course not retain the projection used on the oldmaps, but use instead, e.g., the usual equidistant rectangular projection. The eastern and northern coast of the Gulf of Finland come out exactly.
(#19) - CH. RUELENS, Les monuments de la gйographie de la Bibliothиque de Belgique. Bruxelles.
(#20) - Repr. E. L. Stevenson, Nicolo de Canerio Januensis Marine World Chart c. 1502, N.Y. 1908.
(#21) - J. FISCHER u. F. V. WIESER, Die Weltkarten Waldseemьllers 1507 & 1516. Innsbruck, 1903.
(#22) - The manuscript is in the University Library of Oslo. A MS map from this manuscript was published, together with an article, by K. NISSEN, Nordenskartet fra 1532 som blev Europas fшrste kilde til kunnskap om de nжsten ukjente land mot nord. Morgenbladet, Oslo, no. 219, 293, 1941.
(#23) - Concerning O. Magnus, see above Footnote 7. For different reproductions of Ziegler's maps, see BAGROW, l.c. 1930, p.116-118.
(#24) - On the frontier-zone map of 1595-6, which is reproduced here, there is also Lapwesi at the end of the Vuoksa (the Saima lake).
(#25) - For Gerasimov's maps and reproductions thereof, see L. BAGROW, l.c. Ergzhft, 199, 1928. 100-101.
(#26) - Regarding Herberstein, see KORDTT, ed. 1899, also BAGROW, l.c. 1928, p.107. For Mьnster's maps - KORDT l.c., for Lyatsky's and Wied's maps - BAGROW, l.c., 1930, p.105-6 and KORDT vol. 1.
(#27) - Data on Finland included in Russian chronicles before 1530 have been collected by R. HAUSEN and translated into Swedish by Prof. J. J. MIKKOLA in Finlands medeltidsurkunder, Helsingfors, 1910-1935, 8 v.v. The Polna river is mentioned only once in connection with the military expeditions in 1496 to the Northern Dvina and, by sea, to Murmansk.
(#28) - For instance, was the 1311 expedition of the Novgorod people directed towards the Kymen river and the city of Bjцrneborg, or to Tavastehus, or did it go along the western coast of Lake Ladoga? See HIPPING, Neva i Nienshants, v. 1, 1909, p.285-7.
(#29) - The text of the treaty, in Russian and Latin, is printed in the aforesaid Finlands medeltidsurkunder, 1, p.121-124.
(#30) - Reproduced by the Gesellschaft fьr Erdkunde zu Berlin: "Drei Karten vom Gerhard Mercator: Europa, Britische Inseln, Weltkarte".
(#31) - In the Stockholm State Archives. Reprod. In Imago Mundi IX, p.95. Russian maps in rolls were also there. They were still available in the 1850's but they cannot not be found. E. HILDEBRAND, l.c. p.211. refers to these.
(#32) - RICHTER, Orbis Arctoi nova et accurata delineatio, auctore Andrea Buraeo Sueco 1625, Lund 1936.
(#33) - S. LЦNNBORG, Swedish Maps, Stockholm 1907.
(#34) - The map of H. Gerrits of 1613 is reproduced by KORDT, 1906. The 1614 map is reproduced by I. I: STEBNITSKY, Pervaya izvestnaya originalnaya ruskaya karta Evropeiskoi Rossii. Izv. Russ. Geogr. Obsh., 25, 1889.
(#35) - Reproduced in KORDT, 1906.
Contents of the maps, the archives where the originals are to be found and short comments.
By H. Kцhlin.
(The roman figures refer to the plates in the atlas.)
(#1). I a,b. Map of the borderline: the Gulf of Finland - Varpavuori. .
Riksarkivet, Stockholm. Grдnskartor Sv. (F)-R, komm. 1595-1596 nr 5. Rеgеng Sverige - Ryssland, Retusaari - Varpavuori, ut. Fцrf. 1590-talet (m.form.).
Coloured drawing on parchment in Indian ink. 144x1847 mm. Varpavuori is situated near the village Sдrkilahti, 2 miles south of Nyslott. Regarding the preparative work to and the six editions of this map, see: RYDBERG and HALLENDORF, Sveriges traktater med frдmmande magter, Stockholm 1903. V:1 p.838, and the map-appendix to the same work - a facsimile print in colours of the abovementioned map. It is also described by B.E. HILDEBRAND in K. Vitterhets historie och antiquitets academiens handlingar, issue 1852, part 20, p.211.
(#2). II: 1. Mapsketch of the area around the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga. .
Riksarkivet, Stockholm. Muscovitica. Grдnshandlingar 1323-1606. Grдnstrakter, 1500-talets slut, ut. Fцrf. (bl. 2 m. Form.).
A strongly schematised drawing in Indian ink. 334x420 mm. Probably made in connection with the peace negotiations between Sweden and Russia 1595-1596. Reproduced in Imago Mundi IX, 1952.
(#3). II: 2. Mapsketch of the area around the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga. .
Riksarkivet, Stockholm. Muscovitica. Grдnshandlingar 1323-1606. Grдnstrakter, 1500-talets slut, ut. Fцrf. (bl. 3 m. Form.).
A strongly schematised drawing in Indian ink. 338x412 mm. Probably made in connection with the peace negotiations between Sweden and Russia 1595-1596. Reproduced in Imago Mundi IX, 1952.
(#4). III: 1. Mapsketch around the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland from Narva and Viborg to, and including, Lake Ladoga.
Riksarkivet, Stockholm. Kartor o. Ritn. Utan kдnd proveniens nr 5. Цstersjцprovinserna allm. Karelen o. Ingermanland. 1600-talets fцrra hдlft. (m. Form.).
Drawing in Indian ink. 417x332 mm. Probably made in connection with Jacob De la Gardie's campaign against Moscow 1611 or during the peace treaty of Stolbova 1617. On the reverse, a contemporary note: "Uthrijttning om landslegenheten ter emillan Wiborg, Kexholm, Nцtheborg, Caporien och Ivangorod" and a table of road distances between different places - on the plate, reproduced beside the map. The map is mentioned and reproduced in Imago Mundi IX, 1952.
(#5). II: 3. Roadsketch of the area - Kexholm - Nцteborg - Nyen. .
K. Krigsarkivet, Stockholm. Finland. Handritade kartor. Viborgs lдn, Kexholms hдrad n:r 2.
Drawing in bistre. 365x550 mm. Probably drawn by Quartermaster General OLOF HANSSON ЦRNEHUFVUD (1600-1644) during his journey of inspection of the Baltic fortification 1634.
(#6). III: 2. General map of the regions around the Carelian Isthmus.
Riksarkivet, Stockholm. Kartor och ritningar utan kдnd proveniens nr 3. Europa, allm. Finland - Ingermanland omr. Kring Ladoga, ut. Fцrf., 1600-talets fцrra hдlft (m. Form.).
Coloured drawing in Indian ink. 367x302 mm. Drawn by the fortification's officer (engineer) TRAJAN BECKER, about 1640. Below the map there is a short military-geographical description.
(#7). III: 3. Geographical map of the Nykyrka and Kivinebb parishes in the Eurepд district. The title on the map: Geographica Tabula Opе Nykijrcke och Kijwennдbs sochner uthi Ewrдpд hдradh. .
Riksarkivet, Stockholm. Lantmдteristyrelsens leveranser 1850 nr 45. Viborgs l., Kivinebbs o. Nykyrka snr. Ut. Fцrf., 1645? (st. Form.).
Coloured drawing ni Indian ink. 790x756 mm. Nykyrka is situated half way from Nyen to Viborg. On the reverse there is a contemporary note: "1645 ... ERIC NILSSON ASPEGREN". A. Was the Land-Surveyor of the Viborg district 1643-1672.
(#8). IV: 1. Geographical drawing of Auditor General Sten von Stenhausen's land property situated at two miles distance above and below the town Nyen on the big river and two and a half miles southwards, to the limit of Duderhof, which can be seen from the map. (1643?) The title on the map: Delineatio Geografica uthцfwer Richs-skultens W: Steen von Steenhusens Gods Tvwее Mill ofwan och Nedan fцr Nyens Staadh, alt uth medh Stoore Elffwen belдget. Sеsom och Twе och een half Mill Sцder uth till Duderhoffs Grдntz som man af dдs Charta och Sircumferents hafweer till att see.
Riksarkivet, Stockholm. Livonica, generalguv. Цver Ingermanland Erik Gyllenstiernas skriv. Till K.M.:t 1643 27/3 (Nyen, Ingermanland, ut. Fцrf., (1643?) (m. Form.).
Drawing in Indian ink. 566x668 mm. Auditor General Bernt, Sten von Stenhausen was Dutch; he entered the Swedish service, was made nobleman and given vast land areas in the Spaskoi parish. A great part of these passed on to the Crown in 1648. The map was most probably made by the Land-Surveyor ERIK ASPEGREN. It is reproduced in ЦHLANDER, Bidrag till kдnnedom om Ingermanlands historia och fцrvaltning, I, 1617-1645. Uppsala 1898.
(#9). VI: 1. Map of the islets situated below Nyen skans. The title on the map: Affritningh pе the Holmar som дhre Belдgne nedan fцr Nyen Skantz.
Riksarkivet, Stockholm. Kartor o. Ritn. Utan kдnd proveniens nr 482, Ingermanland, Nyen, цar, ut. Fцrf., 1600-talet. (m. Form.).
Coloured drawing in Indian ink. 415x320 mm. The map was drawn by Land-Surveyor ERIK NILSSON ASPEGREN about 1650. A duplicate of this map is preserved at the Military Archives (345x295 mm.). The square that can be seen between the Neva and the Ochta bears, on the lastmentioned map, the inscription "Konungsgеrden", but, for the rest, the two maps are quite similar.
(#10). V. Map of Carelia and Ingria. Part of a bigger map, which besides comprises Estonia and Livonia. (Prior to 1666).
Riksarkivet, Stockholm. Lantmдteristyrelsens leveranser: 1850 nr 2, Karelen, Ingermanland, Estland, ut. Fцrf., 1600-talets senare del (st. Form.).
Coloured drawing in Indian ink. 655x520 mm. The whole map - 1250x520 mm. An unsigned and undated sketch of the Swedish possessions east of the Baltic Sea, indicationg the areas of homesteads and villages in "hake & obs"-numbers (square measures). The map is probably a copy of an older original. It can with certainty be ascribed to the Captain of the fortification PETER KIRSTENIUS, who probably produced it in the 1650's. Cpr. The map, plate VI:2.
(#11). IV: 2. Map of the Royal town Nyen's land-areas in the Spaskoi parish of Nдteborg's district and of a few homesteads situated within the limits of the town and, besides, the late Colonel Lieutenant Butterlin's estate. Made to His Excellency Mr. Fieldmarshall and Governor General's written order. The title on the map: Afritning po then Kongl Staden Nyen gohds och Legenheter uthi Spaski pogost och Nцteborgs lдhn sampt nogre hemman som ther ibland ock innan thess rееr дhre belagne jemwel Sal: H. Ofwerst L[цjtnant] Butterlins gohds efter hans Excell. H[err]. Feldmarch. och General Guvern: Shriftlige befalning updragaht.
Riksarkivet, Stockholm. Kartor o. Ritn. Utan kдnd proveniens: nr 481, Ingermanland, Nyens jordbesittning, ut. Fцrf., 1600-talet (m. Form.).
Drawing in Indian ink. 500x633 mm. A list of the names of private sites within the town and of a few donated estates is given in a "Note" on the map. Presumably the map should be dated 1665 or 1666. It was probably produced by Land-Surveyor JOH SVENSSON FABER. Cpr. This map with plate nr XII: 1.
(#12). XII: 1. Map of the north-western part of Ingria between Narva and Koporie. [1666?].
Riksarkivet, Stockholm. Kammararkivet, Kartor o. Ritningar nr 175 b. Bl. 1. (m. Form.).
Coloured drawing in Indian ink. 518x418 mm. The map represents Count Bengt Oxenstierna's land property and the adjacent estates bordering with it. The names of the neighbouring land-owners are given in a "Note" at the bottom of the map. The map was probably made by Land-Surveyor JON SVENSSON FABER between 1665 and 1667. Cpr. This map with plate No. IV: 2.
(#13). VII, VIII. Geometrical map of the Duderhof parish in northern Ingria.
Riksarkivet, Stockholm. Lantmдteristyrelsens leveranser: 1850, nr 308 Nцteborgs 1. Duderhofs pogost. Ot. Fцrf., 1600-talets slut. (st. Form.).
Drawing in Indian ink with sparce colouring. The whole map measures 2240x950 mm. The map is reproduced here on two plates. It was probably drawn by Land-Surveyor PETTER THORING about 1680. It is executed in the same hand and at approximately the same date as the map of the Spaskoi parish, plate IX, with which it connects. Connected from about forty homestead- and village-maps.
(#14). IX. Geometrical map of a part of the Spaskoi parish, Nцteborg's district, between the village Revonenna on the Gulf of Finland and the village Guddilof on the Neva.
Riksarkivet, Stockholm. Lantmдteristyrelsens leveranser 1850, nr 310. Ingermanland, Nцteborgs 1. Spaskoi pogost, ut. Fцrf., 1600-talets slut (m. Form.).
Drawing in Indian ink with sparce colouring. 870x480 mm. The map was probably made by Land-Surveyor PETTER THORING about 1680. It is executed in the same hand and approximately at the same date as the map of the Duderhof parish, plates VII and VIII, with which it connects.
(#15). VI: 2. Map of Carelia and Ingria. Part of a bigger map, which, besides, comprises Estonia and Livonia. (About 1680?).
k. Krigsarkivet, Stockholm. Ryssland, Band 32 n:r 49.
Coloured drawing in Indian ink. 712x895 mm. An unsigned and undated sketch of the Swedish possessions east of the Baltic Sea, indicating the areas of homesteads and villages in "hake & obs"-numbers (square measures). This map is presumably a simplified copy (made with certainty before 1683) of the Kirstenius' map, plate No. V, though the lastmentioned is more rich in place-names. The relation between the different miles of the scale should be observed.
(#16). X a, b. Geometrical map of the river Neva from Lake Ladoga and Nцteborg to Nyen-skans; the rest of the river down to the Baltic Sea is casually and approcimately traced out ... Surveyed in October 1681 by E. J. DBgh. The title on the map: Geometrisch Delineation uthaf Newa-strцmmen ifrеn Ladoga Siцn och Nцtheborgh in till Nyen-skantz, men den цfrige deelen in till Цster Siцn дhr obiter och ungefehr teknat. ... Observerat in Octobri A: 1681 af E. J. DBgh. (ERIK JЦNSSON DAHLBERGH, 1625-1703. Quartermaster General).
K. Krigsarkivet, Stockholm. Ryssland. 34 Band nr VIII litt a.
Coloured drawing in Indian ink. 1045x355 mm. The text in the map contains a short description of the river. On the reverse of the map: "Newa Strцmmen Uthij Ingermanlandh. Innlefwererat af Цfwersten och Krigs-Rеdet Wдhlborne H: Erich Dahlberg den 12 Decembris 1681". There is also two "copies" of this map in the Archives - one by RIDDERSTRЕHLE 1741 and the other by VON RЦЦK 1778. Submitting this map to the King, on 18th December 1681, Dahlberg attached to it a report on the situation in Carelia and Ingria. This report is given by C. VON BORNSDORFF in: Nyen och Nyen skans, Helsingfors 1891. The map is also mentioned there on page 15.
(#17). XI. Geographical map of Nцteborg's district in Ingria (with the exception of the Duderhof parish), which is transferred from a geometrical concept, in June 1688, by ERICH BELINGH. The title on the map: Geographisk Charta Цfwer Nцtheborgs Lдhn I Ingermanland (undantagandes Duderhofs Pogost) Hwilken Дhr Transporterat af de Geometriske Concepter, Anno 1688 in Junio aff ... Erich Belingh.
Riksarkivet, Stockholm. Lantmдteristyrelsens leveranser: 1850, nr 307. Ingermanland, Nцteborgs l. Цversikt, Erich Belingh, 1688 (stцrsta form.).
Coloured drawing in Indian ink. 823x1402 mm. BELINGH, who also made a map of the whole of Ingria in 1688, was the land-surveyor there 1688-1700. Cpr. With the map No. XIII.
(#18). XIII. Chorographic or district map of the surroundings of Nцteborg and of the Neva's course from Lake Ladoga to the Baltic Sea. The title on the map: Chorographisk eller Trackt-Carta omkringh Nцtheborgh, sampt Neva Strцmmens Lеpp uthur Ladoga-inuthj Цster-Siцn.
K. Krigsarkivet, Stockholm. Ryssland. Band 32 n:r 40.
Coloured drawing in Indian ink. 840x615 mm. Regarding the map-maker, there are two names to choose from: J. A. BLAESINGH became Conductorof the fortification in 1698; in 1701 he was commanded to Nyen, but returned to Sweden after the capitulation of 1703; BLAESINGH is indicated in one of the older catalogues as the author of the map. If he indeed drew this map, it ought to be dated 1701 or 1702. The damaged signature in the left-hand bottom corner might as well be ascribed to Land-Surveyor ERIK BELINGH's hand. He died in 1700. If the map is ascribed to the lastmentioned it must be dated 1699.
(#19). XIV: 1. This map of the Nцteborg's district was made after a big, old map, which we had at the office here; it was transferred to this format and a size appropriate for land-surveying maps in January 1699. C. M. STUART. - WASSANDER fecit. The title on the map: Denna Landt Carta цfwer NцteBorgs Lдhn дr efter een stoor gammall Carta, som fanns hдr pе Contoret, brakt till detta Format och rдtta Storleken af Landt Cartor in Januari A:o 1699. C. M. Stuart - Wassander fecit.
K. Krigsarkivet, Stockholm. Sveriges krig. Цstersjцprovinserna 1699-1700. Rekognoseringar n:r 12.
Coloured drawing in Indian ink. 321x417 mm. In 1699 STUART was Quartermaster General of the fortification. WASSANDER was in the same year Conductor of the fortification.
(#20). XII: 2. Map or Geographical Delineation of Ingria. (1699). The title on the map: Land-Charta Eller Geographisk Delineation Цfwer Ingermanland.
K. Krigsarkivet, Stockholm. Sveriges krig. Цstersjцprovinserna 1699-1700. Rekognoseringar n:r 17.
Coloured drawing in Indian ink. 592x505 mm. Another copy of this map - at the Military Archives - bears the following title: "Land Charta Eller Geographisk Delineation Цfwer Ingermanlandet Upsatt och Fцrfдrdigat Anno 1699 Dе jag (Quartermaster General C. M. STUART) efter Kongl: Maяtt allernеdigste Befallning till den Orten fцrrester war". The lastmentioned map is reproduced in: ЦHLANDER, Ingermanlands historia, Upsala 1898.
(#21). XV. Hydrographic map of the river Neva from the Nyen roadstead in the Salt-Sea to Nцteborg indication its correct situation and deep as well as shoals and banks; surveyed in May and June by CARL ELDBERGH. The title on the map: Hydrographisk Charta цfwer Nefwa Strцmmen alt ifrеn Nyenska Redden i Salt-Siцn, till Nцtheborgs Redd i Ladoga-Siцn, med dess rдtta Situation och diuplek, sampt grund och Banckar; Observerad utj Maj och Juni Mеnader A:o 1701 av Carl Eldbergh.
K. Krigsarkivet, Stockholm. Sveriges krig. Rekognoseringar 1700-1705. Neva n:r 12.
Coloured drawing in Indian ink. 1225x615 mm. The scale is in Swedish ells; deep in feet. ELDBERGH was Conductor, and later, Lieutenant of the Fleet and coast-surveyor. About his expedition to the Neva and Lake Ladoga, see Krigsarkivet, Amiralitets-kollegie registratur 1701, p. 791. Cpr. His "Charta цfwer Nyenske Redden med en dehl av Nefva Strцmmen". Riksarkivet, Stockholm.
(#22). VI: 3. Plan of the foundation of the fort and town of St. Petersburg in 1703-1705. Signed H. ?. B.
Riksarkivet, Stockholm. Defensionskommissionens arkiv. Ink. Handl. 1705 vol. 11, bil. 1705 18/1.
Drawing in Indian ink. 205x319 mm. Writing from Viborg to the Commission of Defence in Stockholm on 24th of July 1704, Lieutenant General J. Maijdel communicates: "Petersburg is very well grounded and fortified, its situation is such, that it can become both a strong fort and a prosperous trading town; may the Czar preserve it for a few years, his power on the sea will become considerable". A schematised picture of the town and the citadel on the islet Jдnissaari (later Peter-Paul's fort). The citadel bears the indication: "Corp de Guard" and "Commen(dantens) Huus" and beside it "Hдr ligger Fiendens Flеtta". On the islet where the town stands, it can be read: "Staden" and "Hццstackar".
(#23). XIV: 2. District map of a part of Carelia and the government of Viborg, showing roads, itineraries and the most important passes and defiles there; and the Swedish army's passage over the Neva in 1708, as well as its camping places at its advance under the command of Lieutenant General Lьbecker. The title on the map: Tract-Charta utaf en del af Carelen och Viborgs-Lдhn, ut-wisandes Wдgarna, March-Routerna, och de fцrnдmste Pass och Defilйer af detta landet; jдmte Svenska Armeens Passage Еhr 1708, цfwer Newa Strцmmen, och dess vid dit Marchen hafde Campementer, under Hr General Major Lьbeckers Commando.
K. Krigsarkivet, Stockholm. Sveriges krig. Neva 1708 aug. N:r 1.
Coloured drawing in Indian ink. 375x452 mm. General Lьbecker's advance toward the Neva from Viborg in August 1708. The camping places are marked by means of black rectangles.
(#24). XVI a, b. Map of Petersburg with surroundings made according to evidence provided by deserters and prisoners of war. . The title on the map: Charta цfwer Petersburg och Situationen dдr omkring aftagen, efter den berдttelse som Deserteurer och fеngar Hafwa giort.
Riksarkivet, Stockholm. Kommissioner o. Kommittйer: Tillhцr defensionskommissionen 1700, 1708 6/2 (?), G. Lьbeckers skriv. (S. Petersburg, situation 1708, efter svenska fеngars berдttelse) (m. Form.).
Coloured drawing in Indian ink. 1528x515 mm. The Governor of Viborg, General Lьbecker wrote to Stockholm on February 6th, 1708 ... "The enclosed map has been made to my orders according to the most reliable information and evidence ...".